Sunday Digest: Bitcoin Price And A New Decade -

World History Timeline of Events Leading up to Bitcoin - In the Making

A (live/editable) timeline of historical events directly or indirectly related to the creation of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies
*still workin' on this so check back later and more will be added, if you have any suggested dates/events feel free to lemme know...
This timeline includes dates pertaining to:
Ancient Bartering – first recorded in Egypt (resources, services...) – doesn’t scale
Tally sticks were used, making notches in bones or wood, as a form of money of account
9000-6000 BC Livestock considered the first form of currency
c3200 BC Clay tablets used in Uruk (Iraq) for accounting (believed to be the earliest form of writing)
3000 BC Grain is used as a currency, measured out in Shekels
3000 BC Banking developed in Mesopotamia
3000 BC? Punches used to stamp symbols on coins were a precursor to the printing press and modern coins
? BC Since ancient Persia and all the way up until the invention and expansion of the telegraph Homing Pigeons were used to carry messages
2000 BC Merchants in Assyria, India and Sumeria lent grain to farmers and traders as a precursor to banks
1700 BC In Babylon at the time of Hammurabi, in the 18th century BC, there are records of loans made by the priests of the temple.
1200 BC Shell money first used in China
1000-600 BC Crude metal coins first appear in China
640 BC Precious metal coins – Gold & Silver first used in ancient Lydia and coastal Greek cities featuring face to face heads of a bull and a lion – first official minted currency made from electrum, a mixture of gold and silver
600-500 BC Atbash Cipher
A substitution Cipher used by ancient Hebrew scholars mapping the alphabet in reverse, for example, in English an A would be a Z, B a Y etc.
400 BC Skytale used by Sparta
474 BC Hundreds of gold coins from this era were discovered in Rome in 2018
350 BC Greek hydraulic semaphore system, an optical communication system developed by Aeneas Tacticus.
c200 BC Polybius Square
??? Wealthy stored coins in temples, where priests also lent them out
??? Rome was the first to create banking institutions apart from temples
118 BC First banknote in the form of 1 foot sq pieces of white deerskin
100-1 AD Caesar Cipher
193 Aureus, a gold coin of ancient Rome, minted by Septimius Severus
324 Solidus, pure gold coin, minted under Constantine’s rule, lasted until the late 8th century
600s Paper currency first developed in Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty, 960–1279
c757–796 Silver pennies based on the Roman denarius became the staple coin of Mercia in Great Britain around the time of King Offa
806 First paper banknotes used in China but isn’t widely accepted in China until 960
1024 The first series of standard government notes were issued in 1024 with denominations like 1 guàn (貫, or 700 wén), 1 mín (緡, or 1000 wén), up to 10 guàn. In 1039 only banknotes of 5 guàn and 10 guàn were issued, and in 1068 a denomination of 1 guàn was introduced which became forty percent of all circulating Jiaozi banknotes.
1040 The first movable type printer was invented in China and made of porcelain
? Some of the earliest forms of long distance communication were drums used by Native Africans and smoke signals used by Native Americans and Chinese
1088 Movable type in Song Dynasty China
1120 By the 1120s the central government officially stepped in and produced their own state-issued paper money (using woodblock printing)
1150 The Knights Templar issued bank notes to pilgrims. Pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value.
1200s-1300s During the 13th century bankers from north Italy, collectively known as Lombards, gradually replace the Jews in their traditional role as money-lenders to the rich and powerful. – Florence, Venice and Genoa - The Bardi and Peruzzi Families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe
1200 By the time Marco Polo visited China they’d move from coins to paper money, who introduced the concept to Europe. An inscription warned, "All counterfeiters will be decapitated." Before the use of paper, the Chinese used coins that were circular, with a rectangular hole in the middle. Several coins could be strung together on a rope. Merchants in China, if they became rich enough, found that their strings of coins were too heavy to carry around easily. To solve this problem, coins were often left with a trustworthy person, and the merchant was given a slip of paper recording how much money they had with that person. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan Dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country."
1252 Florin minted in Florence, becomes the hard currency of its day helping Florence thrive economically
1340 Double-entry bookkeeping - The clerk keeping the accounts for the Genoese firm of Massari painstakingly fills in the ledger for the year 1340.
1397 Medici Bank established
1450 Johannes Gutenberg builds the printing press – printed words no longer just for the rich
1455 Paper money disappears from China
1466 Polyalphabetic Cipher
1466 Rotating cipher disks – Vatican – greatest crypto invention in 1000 yrs – the first system to challenge frequency analysis
1466 First known mechanical cipher machine
1472 The oldest bank still in existence founded, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, headquartered in Siena, Italy
1494 Double-entry bookkeeping system codified by Luca Pacioli
1535 Wampum, a form of currency used by Native Americans, a string of beads made from clamshells, is first document.
1553 Vigenere Cipher
1557 Phillip II of Spain managed to burden his kingdom with so much debt (as the result of several pointless wars) that he caused the world's first national bankruptcy — as well as the world's second, third and fourth, in rapid succession.
1577 Newspaper in Korea
1586 The Babington Plot
1590 Cabinet Noir was established in France. Its mission was to open, read and reseal letters, and great expertise was developed in the restoration of broken seals. In the knowledge that mail was being opened, correspondents began to develop systems to encrypt and decrypt their letters. The breaking of these codes gave birth to modern systematic scientific code breaking.
1600s Promissory banknotes began in London
1600s By the early 17th century banking begins also to exist in its modern sense - as a commercial service for customers rather than kings. – Late 17th century we see cheques slowly gains acceptance
The total of the money left on deposit by a bank's customers is a large sum, only a fraction of which is usually required for withdrawals. A proportion of the rest can be lent out at interest, bringing profit to the bank. When the customers later come to realize this hidden value of their unused funds, the bank's profit becomes the difference between the rates of interest paid to depositors and demanded from debtors.
The transformation from moneylenders into private banks is a gradual one during the 17th and 18th centuries. In England it is achieved by various families of goldsmiths who early in the period accept money on deposit purely for safe-keeping. Then they begin to lend some of it out. Finally, by the 18th century, they make banking their business in place of their original craft as goldsmiths.
1605 Newspaper in Straussburg
c1627 Great Cipher
1637 Wampum is declared as legal tender in the U.S. (where we got the slang word “clams” for money)
1656 Johan Palmstruch establishes the Stockholm Banco
1661 Paper Currency reappears in Europe, soon became common - The goldsmith-bankers of London began to give out the receipts as payable to the bearer of the document rather than the original depositor
1661 Palmstruch issues credit notes which can be exchanged, on presentation to his bank, for a stated number of silver coins
1666 Stockholms Banco, the predecessor to the Central Bank of Sweden issues the first paper money in Europe. Soon went bankrupt for printing too much money.
1667 He issues more notes than his bank can afford to redeem with silver and winds up in disgrace, facing a death penalty (commuted to imprisonment) for fraud.
1668 Bank of Sweden – today the 2nd oldest surviving bank
1694 First Central Bank established in the UK was the first bank to initiate the permanent issue of banknotes
Served as model for most modern central banks.
The modern banknote rests on the assumption that money is determined by a social and legal consensus. A gold coin's value is simply a reflection of the supply and demand mechanism of a society exchanging goods in a free market, as opposed to stemming from any intrinsic property of the metal. By the late 17th century, this new conceptual outlook helped to stimulate the issue of banknotes.
1700s Throughout the commercially energetic 18th century there are frequent further experiments with bank notes - deriving from a recognized need to expand the currency supply beyond the availability of precious metals.
1710 Physiocracy
1712 First commercial steam engine
1717 Master of the Royal Mint Sir Isaac Newton established a new mint ratio between silver and gold that had the effect of driving silver out of circulation (bimetalism) and putting Britain on a gold standard.
1735 Classical Economics – markets regulate themselves when free of intervention
1744 Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Founder of the Rothschild Banking Empire, is Born in Frankfurt, Germany
Mayer Amschel Rothschild extended his banking empire across Europe by carefully placing his five sons in key positions. They set up banks in Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris. By the mid 1800’s they dominated the banking industry, lending to governments around the world and people such as the Vanderbilts, Carnegies, and Cecil Rhodes.
1745 There was a gradual move toward the issuance of fixed denomination notes in England standardized printed notes ranging from £20 to £1,000 were being printed.
1748 First recorded use of the word buck for a dollar, stemming from the Colonial period in America when buck skins were commonly traded
1757 Colonial Scrip Issued in US
1760s Mayer Amschel Rothschild establishes his banking business
1769 First steam powered car
1775-1938 US Diplomatic Codes & Ciphers by Ralph E Weber used – problems were security and distribution
1776 American Independence
1776 Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand theory helped bankers and money-lenders limit government interference in the banking sector
1781 The Bank of North America was a private bank first adopted created the US Nation's first de facto central bank. When shares in the bank were sold to the public, the Bank of North America became the country's first initial public offering. It lasted less than ten years.
1783 First steamboat
1791 Congress Creates the First US Bank – A Private Company, Partly Owned by Foreigners – to Handle the Financial Needs of the New Central Government. First Bank of the United States, a National bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, it was not renewed in 1811.
Previously, the 13 states had their own banks, currencies and financial institutions, which had an average lifespan of about 5 years.
1792 First optical telegraph invented where towers with telescopes were dispersed across France 12-25 km apart, relaying signals according to positions of arms extended from the top of the towers.
1795 Thomas Jefferson invents the Jefferson Disk Cipher or Wheel Cipher
1797 to 1821 Restriction Period by England of trading banknotes for silver during Napoleonic Wars
1797 Currency Crisis
Although the Bank was originally a private institution, by the end of the 18th century it was increasingly being regarded as a public authority with civic responsibility toward the upkeep of a healthy financial system.
1799 First paper machine
1800 Banque de France – France’s central bank opens to try to improve financing of the war
1800 Invention of the battery
1801 Rotchschild Dynasty begins in Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire – established international banking family through his 5 sons who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples
1804 Steam locomotive
1807 Internal combustion engine and automobile
1807 Robert Fulton expands water transportation and trade with the workable steamboat.
1809 Telegraphy
1811 First powered printing press, also first to use a cylinder
1816 The Privately Owned Second Bank of the US was Chartered – It Served as the Main Depository for Government Revenue, Making it a Highly Profitable Bank – charter not renewed in 1836
1816 The first working telegraph was built using static electricity
1816 Gold becomes the official standard of value in England
1820 Industrial Revolution
c1820 Neoclassical Economics
1821 British gov introduces the gold standard - With governments issuing the bank notes, the inherent danger is no longer bankruptcy but inflation.
1822 Charles Babbage, considered the "father of the computer", begins building the first programmable mechanical computer.
1832 Andrew Jackson Campaigns Against the 2nd Bank of the US and Vetoes Bank Charter Renewal
Andrew Jackson was skeptical of the central banking system and believed it gave too few men too much power and caused inflation. He was also a proponent of gold and silver and an outspoken opponent of the 2nd National Bank. The Charter expired in 1836.
1833 President Jackson Issues Executive Order to Stop Depositing Government Funds Into Bank of US
By September 1833, government funds were being deposited into state chartered banks.
1833-1837 Manufactured “boom” created by central bankers – money supply Increases 84%, Spurred by the 2nd Bank of the US
The total money supply rose from $150 million to $267 million
1835 Jackson Escapes Assassination. Assassin misfired twice.
1837-1862 The “Free Banking Era” there was no formal central bank in the US, and banks issued their own notes again
1838 First Telegram sent using Morse Code across 3 km, in 1844 he sent a message across 71 km from Washington DC to Baltimore.
1843 Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm for computing
1844 Modern central bank of England established - meaning only the central bank of England could issue banknotes – prior to that commercial banks could issue their own and were the primary form of currency throughout England
the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt.
1848 Communist Manifesto
1850 The first undersea telegraphic communications cable connected France in England after latex produced from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree in 1845 was proposed as insulation for the underwater cables.
1852 Many countries in Europe build telegram networks, however post remained the primary means of communication to distant countries.
1855 In England fully printed notes that did not require the name of the payee and the cashier's signature first appeared
1855 The printing telegraph made it possible for a machine with 26 alphabetic keys to print the messages automatically and was soon adopted worldwide.
1856 Belgian engineer Charles Bourseul proposed telephony
1856 The Atlantic Telegraph company was formed in London to stretch a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, completed in 1866.
1860 The Pony Express was founded, able to deliver mail of wealthy individuals or government officials from coast to coast in 10 days.
1861 The East coast was connected to the West when Western Union completed the transcontinental telegraph line, putting an end to unprofitable The Pony Express.
1862-1863 First US banknotes - Lincoln Over Rules Debt-Based Money and Issues Greenbacks to Fund Civil War
Bankers would only lend the government money under certain conditions and at high interest rates, so Lincoln issued his own currency – “greenbacks” – through the US Treasury, and made them legal tender. His soldiers went on to win the war, followed by great economic expansion.
1863 to 1932 “National Banking Era” Commercial banks in the United States had legally issued banknotes before there was a national currency; however, these became subject to government authorization from 1863 to 1932
1864 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen founded the first rural credit union in Heddesdorf (now part of Neuwied) in Germany. By the time of Raiffeisen's death in 1888, credit unions had spread to Italy, France, the Netherlands, England, Austria, and other nations
1870 Long-distance telegraph lines connected Britain and India.
c1871 Marginalism - The doctrines of marginalism and the Marginal Revolution are often interpreted as a response to the rise of the worker's movement, Marxian economics and the earlier (Ricardian) socialist theories of the exploitation of labour.
1871 Carl Menger’s Principles of Economics – Austrian School
1872 Marx’s Das Capital
1872 Australia becomes the first nation to be connected to the rest of the world via submarine telegraph cables.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, first called the electric speech machine – revolutionized communication
1877 Thomas Edison – Phonograph
1878 Western Union, the leading telegraph provider of the U.S., begins to lose out to the telephone technology of the National Bell Telephone Company.
1881 President James Garfield, Staunch Proponent of “Honest Money” Backed by Gold and Silver, was Assassinated
Garfield opposed fiat currency (money that was not backed by any physical object). He had the second shortest Presidency in history.
1882 First description of the one-time pad
1886 First gas powered car
1888 Ballpoint pen
1892 Cinematograph
1895 System of wireless communication using radio waves
1896 First successful intercontinental telegram
1898 Polyethylene
1899 Nickel-cadmium battery
1907 Banking Panic of 1907
The New York Stock Exchange dropped dramatically as everyone tried to get their money out of the banks at the same time across the nation. This banking panic spurred debate for banking reform. JP Morgan and others gathered to create an image of concern and stability in the face of the panic, which eventually led to the formation of the Federal Reserve. The founders of the Federal Reserve pretended like the bankers were opposed to the idea of its formation in order to mislead the public into believing that the Federal Reserve would help to regulate bankers when in fact it really gave even more power to private bankers, but in a less transparent way.
1908 St Mary’s Bank – first credit union in US
1908 JP Morgan Associate and Rockefeller Relative Nelson Aldrich Heads New National Monetary Commission
Senate Republican leader, Nelson Aldrich, heads the new National Monetary Commission that was created to study the cause of the banking panic. Aldrich had close ties with J.P. Morgan and his daughter married John D. Rockefeller.
1910 Bankers Meet Secretly on Jekyll Island to Draft Federal Reserve Banking Legislation
Over the course of a week, some of the nation’s most powerful bankers met secretly off the coast of Georgia, drafting a proposal for a private Central Banking system.
1913 Federal Reserve Act Passed
Two days before Christmas, while many members of Congress were away on vacation, the Federal Reserve Act was passed, creating the Central banking system we have today, originally with gold backed Federal Reserve Notes. It was based on the Aldrich plan drafted on Jekyll Island and gave private bankers supreme authority over the economy. They are now able to create money out of nothing (and loan it out at interest), make decisions without government approval, and control the amount of money in circulation.
1913 Income tax established -16th Amendment Ratified
Taxes ensured that citizens would cover the payment of debt due to the Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, which was also created in 1913.The 16th Amendment stated: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.”
1914 November, Federal Reserve Banks Open
JP Morgan and Co. Profits from Financing both sides of War and Purchasing Weapons
J.P. Morgan and Co. made a deal with the Bank of England to give them a monopoly on underwriting war bonds for the UK and France. They also invested in the suppliers of war equipment to Britain and France.
1914 WWI
1917 Teletype cipher
1917 The one-time pad
1917 Zimmerman Telegram intercepted and decoded by Room 40, the cryptanalysis department of the British Military during WWI.
1918 GB returns to gold standard post-war but it didn’t work out
1919 First rotor machine, an electro-mechanical stream ciphering and decrypting machine.
1919 Founding of The Cipher Bureau, Poland’s intelligence and cryptography agency.
1919-1929 The Black Chamber, a forerunner of the NSA, was the first U.S. cryptanalytic organization. Worked with the telegraph company Western Union to illegally acquire foreign communications of foreign embassies and representatives. It was shut down in 1929 as funding was removed after it was deemed unethical to intercept private domestic radio signals.
1920s Department stores, hotel chains and service staions begin offering customers charge cards
1921-1929 The “Roaring 20’s” – The Federal Reserve Floods the Economy with Cash and Credit
From 1921 to 1929 the Federal Reserve increased the money supply by $28 billion, almost a 62% increase over an eight-year period.[3] This artificially created another “boom”.
1927 Quartz clock
1928 First experimental Television broadcast in the US.
1929 Federal Reserve Contracts the Money Supply
In 1929, the Federal Reserve began to pull money out of circulation as loans were paid back. They created a “bust” which was inevitable after issuing so much credit in the years before. The Federal Reserve’s actions triggered the banking crisis, which led to the Great Depression.
1929 October 24, “Black Thursday”, Stock Market Crash
The most devastating stock market crash in history. Billions of dollars in value were consolidated into the private banker’s hands at the expense of everyone else.
1930s The Great Depression marked the end of the gold standard
1931 German Enigma machines attained and reconstructed.
1932 Turbo jet engine patented
1933 SEC founded - passed the Glass–Steagall Act, which separated investment banking and commercial banking. This was to avoid more risky investment banking activities from ever again causing commercial bank failures.
1933 FM Radio
1933 Germany begins Telex, a network of teleprinters sending and receiving text based messages. Post WWII Telex networks began to spread around the world.
1936 Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented Printed circuit board
1936 Beginning of the Keynesian Revolution
1937 Typex, British encryption machines which were upgraded versions of Enigma machines.
1906 Teletypewriters
1927 Founding of highly secret and unofficial Signal Intelligence Service, SIS, the U.S. Army’s codebreaking division.
1937 Made illegal for Americans to own gold
1938 Z1 built by Konrad Zuse is the first freely programmable computer in the world.
1939 WWII – decline of the gold standard which greatly restricted policy making
1939-45 Codetalkers - The Navajo code is the only spoken military code never to have been deciphered - "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima."—Howard Connor
1940 Modems
1942 Deciphering Japanese coded messages leads to a turning point victory for the U.S. in WWII.
1943 At Bletchley Park, Alan Turing and team build a specialized cipher-breaking machine called Heath Robinson.
1943 Colossus computer built in London to crack the German Lorenz cipher.
1944 Bretton Woods – convenient after the US had most of the gold
1945 Manhattan Project – Atom Bomb
1945 Transatlantic telephone cable
1945 Claude E. Shannon published "A mathematical theory of cryptography", commonly accepted as the starting point for development of modern cryptography.
C1946 Crypto Wars begin and last to this day
1946 Charg-it card created by John C Biggins
1948 Atomic clock
1948 Claude Shannon writes a paper that establishes the mathematical basis of information theory
1949 Info theorist Claude Shannon asks “What does an ideal cipher look like?” – one time pad – what if the keys are not truly random
1950 First credit card released by the Diners Club, able to be used in 20 restaurants in NYC
1951 NSA, National Security Agency founded and creates the KL-7, an off-line rotor encryption machine
1952 First thermonuclear weapon
1953 First videotape recorder
1953 Term “Hash” first used meaning to “chop” or “make a mess” out of something
1954 Atomic Energy Act (no mention of crypto)
1957 The NSA begins producing ROMOLUS encryption machines, soon to be used by NATO
1957 First PC – IBM
1957 First Satellite – Sputnik 1
1958 Western Union begins building a nationwide Telex network in the U.S.
1960s Machine readable codes were added to the bottom of cheques in MICR format, which speeded up the clearing and sorting process
1960s Financial organizations were beginning to require strong commercial encryption on the rapidly growing field of wired money transfer.
1961 Electronic clock
1963 June 4, Kennedy Issued an Executive Order (11110) that Authorized the US Treasury to Issue Silver Certificates, Threatening the Federal Reserve’s Monopoly on Money
This government issued currency would bypass the governments need to borrow from bankers at interest.
1963 Electronic calculator
1963 Nov. 22, Kennedy Assassinated
1963 Johnson Reverses Kennedy’s Banking Rule and Restores Power to the Federal Reserve
1964 8-Track
1964 LAN, Local Area Networks adapters
1965 Moore’s Law by CEO of Intel Gordon Moore observes that the number of components per integrated circuit doubles every year, and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975 he revised it to every two years.
1967 First ATM installed at Barclay’s Bank in London
1968 Cassette Player introduced
1969 First connections of ARPANET, predecessor of the internet, are made. started – SF, SB, UCLA, Utah (now Darpa) – made to stay ahead of the Soviets – there were other networks being built around the world but it was very hard to connect them – CERN in Europe
1970s Stagflation – unemployment + inflation, which Keynesian theory could not explain
1970s Business/commercial applications for Crypto emerge – prior to this time it was militarily used – ATMs 1st got people thinking about commercial applications of cryptography – data being sent over telephone lines
1970s The public developments of the 1970s broke the near monopoly on high quality cryptography held by government organizations.
Use of checks increased in 70s – bringing about ACH
One way functions...
A few companies began selling access to private networks – but weren’t allowed to connect to the internet – business and universities using Arpanet had no commercial traffic – internet was used for research, not for commerce or advertising
1970 Railroads threatened by the growing popularity of air travel. Penn Central Railroad declares bankruptcy resulting in a $3.2 billion bailout
1970 Conjugate coding used in an attempt to design “money physically impossible to counterfeit”
1971 The US officially removes the gold standard
1971 Email invented
1971 Email
1971 First microcomputer on a chip
1971 Lockheed Bailout - $1.4 billion – Lockheed was a major government defense contractor
1972 First programmable word processor
1972 First video game console
1973 SWIFT established
1973 Ethernet invented, standardized in ‘83
1973 Mobile phone
1973 First commercial GUI – Xerox Alto
1973 First touchscreen
1973 Emails made up more than ¾ of ARPANET’s packets – people had to keep a map of the network by their desk – so DNS was created
1974 A protocol for packet network intercommunication – TCP/IP – Cerf and Kahn
1974 Franklin National Bank Bailout - $1.5 billion (valued at that time) - At the time, it was the largest bank failure in US history
1975 New York City Bailout - $9.4 billion – NYC was overextended
1975 W DES - meant that commercial uses of high quality encryption would become common, and serious problems of export control began to arise.
1975 DES, Data Encryption Standard developed at IBM, seeking to develop secure electronic communications for banks and large financial organizations. DES was the first publicly accessible cipher to be 'blessed' by a national agency such as the NSA. Its release stimulated an explosion of public and academic interest in cryptography.
1975 Digital camera
1975 Altair 8800 sparks the microprocessor revolution
1976 Bretton Woods ratified (lasted 30 years) – by 80’s all nations were using floating currencies
1976 New Directions in Cryptography published by Diffie & Hellman – this terrified Fort Meade – previously this technique was classified, now it’s public
1976 Apple I Computer – Steve Wozniak
1976 Asymmetric key cryptosystem published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman.
1976 Hellman and Diffie publish New Directions in Cryptography, introducing a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, contributing much to solving key distribution one of the fundamental problems of cryptography. It brought about the almost immediate public development of asymmetric key algorithms. - where people can have 2 sets of keys, public and private
1977 Diffie & Hellman receive letter from NSA employee JA Meyer that they’re violating Federal Laws comparable to arms export – this raises the question, “Can the gov prevent academics from publishing on crypto?
1977 DES considered insecure
1977 First handheld electronic game
1977 RSA public key encryption invented
1978 McEliece Cryptosystem invented, first asymmetric encryption algorithm to use randomization in the encryption process
1980s Large data centers began being built to store files and give users a better faster experience – companies rented space from them - Data centers would not only store data but scour it to show people what they might want to see and in some cases, sell data
1980s Reaganomics and Thatcherism
1980 A decade of intense bank failures begins; the FDIC reports that 1,600 were either closed or received financial assistance from 1980 to 1994
1980 Chrysler Bailout – lost over $1 billion due to major hubris on the part of its executives - $1.5 billion one of the largest payouts ever made to a single corporation.
1980 Protocols for public key cryptosystems – Ralph Merkle
1980 Flash memory invented – public in ‘84
1981 “Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses and Digital Pseudonumns” – Chaum
1981 EFTPOS, Electronic funds transfer at point of sale is created
1981 IBM Personal Computer
1982 “The Ethics of Liberty” Murray Rothbard
1982 Commodore 64
1982 CD
1983 Satellite TV
1983 First built in hard drive
1983 C++
1983 Stereolithography
1983 Blind signatures for untraceable payments
Mid 1980s Use of ATMs becomes more widespread
1984 Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust bailed out due to overly aggressive lending styles and - the bank’s downfall could be directly traced to risk taking and a lack of due diligence on the part of bank officers - $9.5 billion in 2008 money
1984 Macintosh Computer - the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse
1984 CD Rom
1985 Zero-Knowledge Proofs first proposed
1985 300,000 simultaneous telephone conversations over single optical fiber
1985 Elliptic Curve Cryptography
1987 ARPANET had connected over 20k guarded computers by this time
1988 First private networks email servers connected to NSFNET
1988 The Crypto Anarchists Manifesto – Timothy C May
1988 ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network
1989 Savings & Loan Bailout - After the widespread failure of savings and loan institutions, President George H. W. Bush signed and Congress enacted the Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act - This was a taxpayer bailout of about $200 billion
1989 First commercial emails sent
1989 Digicash - Chaum
1989 Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau built the prototype system which became the World Wide Web, WWW
1989 First ISPs – companies with no network of their own which connected people to a local network and to the internet - To connect to a network your computer placed a phone call through a modem which translated analog signals to digital signals – dial-up was used to connect computers as phone lines already had an extensive network across the U.S. – but phone lines weren’t designed for high pitched sounds that could change fast to transmit large amounts of data
1990s Cryptowars really heat up...
1990s Some countries started to change their laws to allow "truncation"
1990s Encryption export controls became a matter of public concern with the introduction of the personal computer. Phil Zimmermann's PGP cryptosystem and its distribution on the Internet in 1991 was the first major 'individual level' challenge to controls on export of cryptography. The growth of electronic commerce in the 1990s created additional pressure for reduced restrictions.[3] Shortly afterward, Netscape's SSL technology was widely adopted as a method for protecting credit card transactions using public key cryptography.
1990 NSFNET replaced Arpanet as backbone of the internet with more than 500k users
Early 90s Dial up provided through AOL and Compuserve
People were leery to use credit cards on the internet
1991 How to time-stamp a digital doc - Stornetta
1991 Phil Zimmermann releases the public key encryption program Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) along with its source code, which quickly appears on the Internet. He distributed a freeware version of PGP when he felt threatened by legislation then under consideration by the US Government that would require backdoors to be included in all cryptographic products developed within the US. Expanded the market to include anyone wanting to use cryptography on a personal computer (before only military, governments, large corporations)
1991 WWW (Tim Berners Lee) – made public in ‘93 – flatten the “tree” structure of the internet using hypertext – reason for HTTP//:WWW – LATER HTTPS for more security
1992 Erwise – first Internet Browser w a graphical Interface
1992 Congress passed a law allowing for commercial traffic on NSFNET
1992 Cpherpunks, Eric Hughes, Tim C May and John Gilmore – online privacy and safety from gov – cypherpunks write code so it can be spread and not shut down (in my earlier chapter)
1993 Mosaic – popularized surfing the web ‘til Netscape Navigator in ’94 – whose code was later used in Firefox
1993 A Cypherpunks Manifesto – Eric Hughes
1994 World’s first online cyberbank, First Virtual, opened for business
1994 Bluetooth
1994 First DVD player
1994 Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994
1994 Internet only used by a few
1994 Cybercash
1994 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption protocol released by Netscape. Making financial transactions possible.
1994 One of the first online purchases was made, a Pizza Hut pepperoni pizza with mushrooms and extra cheese
1994 Cyphernomicon published – social implication where gov can’t do anything about it
1994-1999 Social Networking – GeoCities (combining creators and users) – had 19M users by ’99 – 3rd most popular after AOL and Yahoo – GeoCities purchased by Yahoo for $3.6B but took a hit after dotcom bubble popped and never recovered – GC shut down in ‘99
1995-2000 Dotcom bubble – Google, Amazon, Facebook: get over 600M visitors/year
1995 DVD
1995 MP3 term coined for MP3 files, the earlier development of which stretches back into the ‘70s, where MP files themselves where developed throughout the ‘90s
1995 NSFNET shut down and handed everything over to the ISPs
1995 NSA publishes the SHA1 hash algorithm as part of its Digital Signature Standard.
1996, 2000 President Bill Clinton signing the Executive order 13026 transferring the commercial encryption from the Munition List to the Commerce Control List. This order permitted the United States Department of Commerce to implement rules that greatly simplified the export of proprietary and open source software containing cryptography, which they did in 2000 - The successful cracking of DES likely helped gather both political and technical support for more advanced encryption in the hands of ordinary citizens - NSA considers AES strong enough to protect information classified at the Top Secret level
1996 e-gold
1997 WAP, Wireless Access Point
1997 NSA researchers published how to mint e cash
1997 Adam Back – HashCash – used PoW – coins could only be used once
1997 Nick Szabo – smart contracts “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks”
1998 OSS, Open-source software Initiative Founded
1998 Wei Dai – B-money – decentralized database to record txs
1998 Bitgold
1998 First backdoor created by hackers from Cult of the Dead Cow
1998 Musk and Thiel founded PayPal
1998 Nick Szabo says crypto can protect land titles even if thugs take it by force – said it could be done with a timestamped database
1999 Much of the Glass-Steagal Act repealed - this saw US retail banks embark on big rounds of mergers and acquisitions and also engage in investment banking activities.
1999 Milton Friedman says, “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government. The one thing that's missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash - a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B without A knowing B or B knowing A.”
1999 European banks began offering mobile banking with the first smartphones
1999 The Financial Services Modernization Act Allows Banks to Grow Even Larger
Many economists and politicians have recognized that this legislation played a key part in the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007.
1999-2001 Napster, P2P file sharing – was one of the fastest growing businesses in history – bankrupt for paying musicians for copyright infringement

submitted by crypto_jedi_ninja to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Weekly Roundup

News roundup for the previous week.
In International news
  1. China’s ‘New Silk Roads’ Reach Latin America
  2. #ChineseAmerican figure skater Nathan Chen wins praise for boldness in PyeongChang: "As I got older, there were more and more Asian kids at competitions that I was going to - that felt cool to me," Chen added, hopes that he too, like his early inspiration, Michelle Kwan, can inspire a new generation
  3. Duterte wants to create ‘balance’ by sending troops to China for training. Mr Duterte said there was a need to “balance” the training of Filipino soldiers, who have a strong bond with the United States military
  4. US National Space Council discusses space threats and opportunities reportedly posed by China
  5. China swept both men's and women's titles at the 2018 ITTF_Team World Cup after beating Japan twice in the finals… "
  6. #Nepal to Deepen Ties with China to Get More Leverage in Dealings with India: Nepal's new Prime Minister K P Oli has said he wants to deepen ties with China to explore more options and get more leverage in his dealings with India "in keeping with the times"
  7. Singapore and China work to boost Chongqing's connectivity
  8. Does anybody know more about the "Ethnic Chinese" ID Card that the government plans to implement for overseas Chinese?
  9. China is now offering a 5-year visa for foreigners of Chinese descend... Has anyone applied for this?
  10. China calls for direct dialogue between DPRK and U.S.
  11. China's peacekeeping force in Mali awarded the Peace Medal of Honor by the UN
  12. Eurasia high speed railway from Germany to China can be built by 2026
  13. CGTN Wang Guan on Confucius Institutes and Chinese students being threats: "Now is some hardliners final attempt to contain a rising ethnic Asian society"
  14. “The UK Is Not a Safe Place” – Concerns over Second Chinese Female Student Reported Missing in London
  15. India Turns to China-Based AIIB for Loans to Fund its Infrastructure Dream
  16. US Slams, China Praises Pakistan's Counterterror Efforts
  17. Parents of Chinese student killed by British driver reject not-guilty verdict
  18. Duterte Allies Seek to Emulate China’s Anti-Poverty Programs
  19. Philippines says in talks with China state firm on joint sea exploration
  20. Beijing blasts Western critics who ‘smear China’ with the term sharp power. Advisory body spokesman says some Westerners are ‘stuck in the cold war era’
  21. Tragedy far from home: Chinese students who went missing abroad
  22. Ng On-yee: #Snooker's new world number one. Has just become the first Asian woman to top the World Ladies Billiards and Snooker (WLBS) rankings. The fact that her father was an amateur player and worked at a local snooker parlour meant that she could train there for free
  23. A Chinese initiative is setting the pace in retail
  24. Trump risks more than a trade war by targeting China
  25. Russia, China agree joint data center for lunar projects & deep space exploration
  26. UCLA players release from China secured before Trump got involved
  27. China denies using citizens overseas to project influence abroad. Senior official says history and contributions of overseas Chinese should be recognised, not ‘slandered or belittled’
  28. Documentary film ‘Abacus: Small Enough to Jail’ nominated for Oscar. A documentary about a Chinese underdog, which took on the US government, is the story of a family-owned bank in New York’s Chinatown – the only bank prosecuted following the financial crisis 10 years ago
  29. Trump on China abolishing term limits: 'Maybe we'll give that a shot'
In Domestic news
  1. Proposed constitutional amendment would grant more Chinese cities legislative power
  2. Proposal to abolish term limit for president could buy more time to pursue reforms
  3. More women, farmers and workers, but fewer officials will sit on China's top legislature, as election results for the new NPC were approved. The new lineup has 742 women, 24.9% of the total, up 1.5%. A total of 468 deputies are workers and farmers. Their share has grown by 2.28% to 15.7%
  4. Funding Infrastructure: Why China Is Running Circles Around America
  5. Elon Musk: China’s progress in advanced infrastructure is 100 times faster than the US
  6. Taiwan is gearing up for a independence referendum (possible official name change)
  7. China’s Brain Drain Is Ending. Officials say they are seeing a payoff from their investments in higher education.
  8. China media makes war threat over U.S. Taiwan bill
  9. China vows deeper friendship with Taiwan amid tensions
  10. What Do China’s Democratic Parties Actually Do?. The CCP is not China’s only political party. Here’s a closer look at the role and function of the other eight
  11. Back from the brink: 8 endangered species inching away from extinction in China
  12. China's C919 large passenger aircraft has received 30 new orders from a domestic leasing company, taking total orders to 815
In SciTech news
  1. Hisense 150" 4K 'Laser TV'震撼CES 2018; 欲进军OLED市场
  2. Does China Control The EV Revolution?
  3. Daimler's Chinese billionaire investor Li Shufu wants its electric car technology
  4. Huawei announces Balong 5G01, first commercially available 5G chipset
  5. China's hypersonic aircraft would fly from Beijing to New York in two hours. The double-wing plane just aced wind tunnel tests at speeds of nearly 5,600 miles per hour
  6. China spends $279 bln on R&D in 2017: science minister
  7. Meet the female engineers and managers of China's space program: The space program looks like it should be a geeky boy's dream. But in China, a large portion of the sector is controlled by female technicians
  8. Watch out America, China's A.I is getting smarter!
  9. #AI sector sees big investment, financing in 2017: received about 180 billion yuan (28 billion U.S. dollars) of investment and financing last year
  10. Alibaba Cloud steps up its game as it offers #quantum computing service
  11. Huawei Mate 10 Pro Showcase - CES 2018
  12. Mine It to the Limit! Chinese Firm Makes Billions From #Cryptocurrency. Bitmain managed to take this activity to a whole new level by raking in more money last year than Nvidia. Bernstein estimates that Bitmain currently has an estimated “70 to 80 percent of market share in bitcoin miners and ASICs”
  13. Chinese scientists develop #AI system to diagnose human diseases: The tool may ultimately aid in expediting the diagnosis and referral of these treatable conditions, thereby facilitating earlier treatment and resulting in improved clinical outcomes
  14. China’s government aims to raise as much as 200 billion yuan ($31.5 billion) to invest in homegrown chip companies and accelerate its ambition of building a world-class semiconductor industry
  15. Get your food served by a robot at restaurants on SW China's rest stops: The smart tables can do much more than help you order food. It can be a game machine, a tour guide or even an e-commerce platform
  16. Huawei MateBook X Pro Hands-On at MWC 2018
  17. Huawei's AI phone tested by driving car at dog
  18. Vivo Apex Concept Phone hands-on
  19. Legit Chinese Brand GPUs? Hands on with the Yeston 3GB GTX 1060
  20. Apple is under fire for moving iCloud data to China
  21. China testing 400km/h "maglev" trains
  22. China to recruit ‘civilian astronauts’
In Economic news
  1. China's Fosun buys majority stake in French luxury brand #Lanvin: The French fashion house was established in 1889. Currently, Lanvin operates in more than 50 countries with women's wear, menswear, children's wear and accessories including footwear and leather goods
  2. China Gives Australia’s Number Two Gas Producer A Boost
  3. #Xiaomi hopes to boost global market sales with new Microsoft agreement: The new strategic contract will see the two companies working together on cloud computing, AI and new equipment for notebook computers
  4. Even the World Bank is starting to take notice: China’s ‘unprecedented poverty reduction’ and the role of the CPC
  5. Tech Mogul Gets $13 Billion Richer Just by Leaving New York for China
  6. Chinese investment flowing out to healthcare. This is what they're looking for.
  7. China's #BYD named No. 2 on list of World's Top 10 Most Innovative Companies in energy: BYD ranked No. 2 for "introducing the first electric trucks," according to the rankings compiled by the Fast Company, a monthly American business magazine
  8. China’s per capita disposable income up 9.0 percent in 2017
  9. China Contributed 30% to Global Economic Growth in 2017
  10. Tencent chief 'Pony' Ma is now China's richest man, doubling his wealth to $47 billion last year
  11. China becomes Vietnam's top export market in first two months of 2018
  12. Russia remains China's top oil supplier as pipeline expands
  13. dotard declares steel trade war against china..... and shoots himself in the foot
  14. Trump Roars; China Yawns - Steel tariffs are only going to hurt one country's economy.
  15. China is quickly becoming the dominant force in startups
  16. China vows to work with other nations to counter Trump tariffs
In Military news
  1. China aims for nuclear-powered aircraft carrier by 2025
  2. J-16 fighter jet video released by PLA Air Force
  3. Chinese military #drone sales hover over Middle East: Defence analysts believe that the drone, the Wing Loong II, is now being used by the United Arab Emirates military while the UAE remains barred from buying weaponised drones from the United States
  4. China's Ready For War: China's Military Capabilities 2018
  5. PLA's Lego Grenade (The scalable offensive hand grenade)
  6. As US loses ground in Mideast, the stage is set for China and Russia to mull military alliance with Iran
Other Notables
  1. Tencent Employees line up "旺"字 outside of HQ building to get red envelopes, CEO 马化腾发钱发到手软
  2. WeChat Users sent 0.688 billion Red Envelopes in a single day (Feb. 15th, average about 8000 Red Envelopes sent per second)!One user sent the most number that day, 1203 Red Envelopes
  3. The Western Hypocrisy in Academic /Classroom freedom: Chinese students being reported to their parents in China about their pro-Western opinions is "disturbing" "spying" and "censorship", while Western media have been rampantly investigating Chinese students as "spies" for their pro-China views
  4. Considering the amendment of Presidential term limits in a geopolitical context
  5. What are some Sino approved documentaries?
  7. China doesn’t care about your opinion
  8. CGTN: Do Chinese students in US threaten US security?
  9. If the US didn’t pass the 22nd Amendment, they’d still have Slick Willy. And would that be such a terrible thing?
  10. Anyone in the know about the status of cryonics in China?
  11. With all the talk about the President term limits possibly being removed, what is happening with the retirement age rule?
  12. ‘Put out your cigarette or leave China,’ commuters confront foreigner smoking on Beijing subway
  13. Higher Brothers x HARIKIRI - Nothing Wrong
  14. 10 Misconceptions Everyone Believes About China (Generally pretty accurate)
  15. Boost Your Vocab with This Catchy Song-The King asked me to patrol the mountains
  16. Footage discovered showing mass grave for wartime 'comfort women'
  17. Forget all you read on Western propaganda about the Tiananmen incident. Video debunks Western claims of PLA shooting peaceful demonstrators
  18. So what would happen to Logan Paul if he disrespected China/Chinese people like he did in Japan?
  19. Q&A with CGTN chief reporter Wang Guan
  20. Exquisite ice sculptures decorate Harbin
  21. #NBA powerhouse Cleveland Cavaliers @cavs celebrate Chinese #LunarNewYear at home game against @BrooklynNets
  22. Why China Is Running Circles Around America
  23. Can this subreddit please differentiate between the DPP and the KMT?
  24. How the West got China wrong
  25. [XD] Story confirmed by official source: Picture shows Jack Ma between two police officiers!
  26. No Matter What the Western Propaganda Says, Chinese Democracy is Alive and Well!
  27. End of Chinese Emperors (221 BCE — 1911 CE) - from Fairbank Center's China Questions book
  28. Instant Pot Beef & Vegetables Congee Rice Poridge (Jook or Juk)
  29. Traditional Chinese hanfu | Ming dynasty fashion by 清辉阁
  30. 2012新年综合晚会选编_合唱《没有共产党就没有新中国》【高清720P】 - YouTube
  31. The Husband Tag! 夫妻默契大考驗!
  32. Chinese President Xi Jinping: What Is His Background?
  33. China's box offices pulled in more than 10 billion yuan (US$1.594 billion) in February, reaching a new high for the Chinese film industry as well as setting a new world record
  34. The West is starting to use feminists like Leta Hong Fincher to destabilize Chinese society. Thoughts?
  35. More black and white stills for Zhang Yimou’s period wuxia film Shadow
submitted by AutoModerator to Sino [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: POTUSWatch top posts from 2017-03-21 to 2017-06-16 15:32 PDT

Period: 86.78 days
Submissions Comments
Total 1000 9637
Rate (per day) 11.52 110.88
Unique Redditors 56 1764
Combined Score 19565 25695

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 12545 points, 696 submissions: MyRSSbot
    1. President Trump on Twitter: "The Fake News Media has never been so wrong or so dirty. Purposely incorrect stories and phony sources to meet their agenda of hate. Sad!" (243 points, 472 comments)
    2. President Trump on Twitter: "As President I wanted to share with Russia (at an openly scheduled W.H. meeting) which I have the absolute right to do, facts pertaining...." (239 points, 109 comments)
    3. President Trump on Twitter: "You are witnessing the single greatest WITCH HUNT in American political history - led by some very bad and conflicted people! #MAGA" (220 points, 370 comments)
    4. President Trump on Twitter: "Despite so many false statements and lies, total and complete vindication...and WOW, Comey is a leaker!" (166 points, 387 comments)
    5. President Donald Trump spoke out on the latest London terror attacks on Sunday night, vowing to do whatever was needed to protect his country from a "vile enemy." (163 points, 229 comments)
    6. President Trump on Twitter: "Sorry folks, but if I would have relied on the Fake News of CNN, NBC, ABC, CBS, washpost or nytimes, I would have had ZERO chance winning WH" (147 points, 360 comments)
    7. President Trump on Twitter: "Do you notice we are not having a gun debate right now? That's because they used knives and a truck!" (133 points, 235 comments)
    8. President Trump on Twitter: "I will be nominating Christopher A. Wray, a man of impeccable credentials, to be the new Director of the FBI. Details to follow." (126 points, 144 comments)
    9. President Trump on Twitter: "I believe the James Comey leaks will be far more prevalent than anyone ever thought possible. Totally illegal? Very 'cowardly!'" (124 points, 88 comments)
    10. President Trump on Twitter: "It is my opinion that many of the leaks coming out of the White House are fabricated lies made up by the #FakeNews media." (120 points, 22 comments)
  2. 3754 points, 211 submissions: Aevann
    1. The White House has agreed to preserve each of President Donald Trump's tweets, even deleted or amended ones, following the request of the National Archives and Records Administration, according to a Monday Associated Press report (155 points, 15 comments)
    2. A U.S. federal judge in Hawaii has indefinitely extended a court order blocking the enforcement of President Donald Trump's revised travel ban (95 points, 4 comments)
    3. A federal judge has rejected President Donald Trump's free speech defense against a lawsuit accusing him of inciting violence against protesters at a campaign rally (94 points, 3 comments)
    4. President Trump on Twitter: "Did Hillary Clinton ever apologize for receiving the answers to the debate? Just asking!" (86 points, 57 comments)
    5. President Donald Trump handed the German chancellor Angela Merkel a bill — thought to be for more than £300bn — for money her country “owed” Nato for defending it when they met last weekend, German government sources have revealed (82 points, 49 comments)
    6. The claim that President Donald Trump is considering resignation is unproven (78 points, 11 comments)
    7. President Donald Trump, who had just proposed slashing the National Institutes of Health's budget for the next year by 20 percent, suggested an immediate $1.2 billion cut to the agency Tuesday (76 points, 6 comments)
    8. POTUSWatch Day 81 Megathread (74 points, 20 comments)
    9. POTUSWatch Day 80 Megathread (71 points, 24 comments)
    10. President Trump isn't concerned about the costs associated with his trips to Mar-a-Lago resort in Palm Beach, Florida, the White House press secretary said Wednesday (64 points, 9 comments)
  3. 454 points, 10 submissions: shish-mish
    1. Congressman calls for Donald Trump's impeachment on House floor (193 points, 35 comments)
    2. Trump's pitch for making the Mexico border wall 'beautiful': add solar panels (90 points, 151 comments)
    3. Trump hails 'great win in Montana' for candidate who body-slammed Guardian reporter (62 points, 7 comments)
    4. Comey: Trump administration 'lied' about the FBI (45 points, 187 comments)
    5. Trump Allegedly Wants FBI To Look Into Locking Up Journalists Who Publish Leaks (33 points, 3 comments)
    6. Justice Department appoints special prosecutor to investigate Russia, Trump campaign ties (12 points, 2 comments)
    7. Trump privately tells EU leaders he is worried about Brexit (6 points, 1 comment)
    8. Trump's lawyer says Comey made 'unauthorized disclosures' to press (5 points, 2 comments)
    9. Comey: I was concerned Trump would lie about our meeting – video (4 points, 2 comments)
    10. Trump says :"‘Germans are bad, very bad’" (4 points, 2 comments)
  4. 209 points, 6 submissions: lordperzeval
    1. Trump says he misses life before he became US president - BBC News (77 points, 19 comments)
    2. Trump just blasted the wrong court for 'blocking' his sanctuary cities order (59 points, 7 comments)
    3. Trump explains why some decisions as commander-in-chief are so tough (27 points, 3 comments)
    4. Prosecutors subpoena Flynn associates in Russia probe: report (25 points, 1 comment)
    5. Read the full transcript of Donald Trump's unorthodox National Teacher of the Year speech (14 points, 3 comments)
    6. Trump tapes video message for RNC meeting in California - (7 points, 1 comment)
  5. 172 points, 1 submission: jaybestnz
    1. A searchable archive of all tweets from Donald. (172 points, 25 comments)
  6. 132 points, 1 submission: KittehWantsToMAGA
    1. Serious question: Why do people believe Trump colluded with Russia? Do people believe he is an illegitimate president because of this? (132 points, 563 comments)
  7. 106 points, 4 submissions: g70460us
    1. Trump admin. delays Obama-era reboot of nutrition label amid industry pressure (62 points, 29 comments)
    2. Proposed legislation seeks to bar a US president from deleting tweets. (29 points, 86 comments)
    3. Is it possible to still have comments in contest mode, but with replies being shown? (9 points, 4 comments)
    4. Trump to nominate Democrat Jessica Rosenworcel for empty slot at FCC (6 points, 0 comments)
  8. 105 points, 1 submission: DamagedFreight
    1. Question - About Trump's vacation time... (105 points, 26 comments)
  9. 103 points, 1 submission: RedPillDropper
    1. President Trump Ends Obama Era Protections For Undocumented Parents (DAPA) (103 points, 109 comments)
  10. 97 points, 1 submission: SROTDroid
    1. Congratulations, /POTUSWatch! You are Subreddit of the Day! (97 points, 5 comments)
  11. 78 points, 1 submission: politicalaids
    1. Twitter is suing the US government over a demand to unmask the people behind an anti-Trump account (78 points, 19 comments)
  12. 70 points, 1 submission: ahandle
    1. "Despite the constant negative press covfefe(sic)" (70 points, 21 comments)
  13. 55 points, 1 submission: MisterNinjaa
    1. Hello POTUSWatch, I just got invited here. Am interested in the idea of this. Want to see the demographics here so I created a straw poll: are you pro-Trump, anti-Trump, or neutral? (55 points, 90 comments)
  14. 51 points, 1 submission: Positronix
    1. Trump announces plan to privatize air traffic control (51 points, 40 comments)
  15. 49 points, 3 submissions: tinabow
    1. Trump plans weekend at Bedminster golf club, FAA notice indicates (22 points, 2 comments)
    2. Budget deal includes money for Trump Mar-a-Lago security (14 points, 1 comment)
    3. Trump to NRA: ‘I will never, ever let you down’ (13 points, 3 comments)
  16. 45 points, 1 submission: me_gusta_poon
    1. Warner on Russia probe: 'We have no smoking gun at this point' (45 points, 43 comments)
  17. 43 points, 1 submission: throwaway-person
    1. Welcoming supporters of Trump into this subreddit has killed it, for one reason. (43 points, 336 comments)
  18. 34 points, 1 submission: messiahyo_
    1. Vladimir Putin denies knowledge of Donald Trump son-in-law back channel proposal (34 points, 20 comments)
  19. 33 points, 1 submission: MFBugz
    1. I understand the purpose of this sub, but this is why I won't bother participating beyond this (33 points, 532 comments)
  20. 33 points, 1 submission: RocGoose
    1. President Trump praises Duterte's approach to drugs, discloses location of two US submarines near North Korea. (33 points, 7 comments)
  21. 31 points, 1 submission: YannickBln
    1. Trump sells Qatar $12 billion of U.S. weapons days after accusing it of funding terrorism - CBS News (31 points, 61 comments)
  22. 30 points, 1 submission: tdavis25
    1. Trump tweet: "In any event we are EXTREME VETTING people coming into the U.S. in order to help keep our country safe. The courts are slow and political!" (30 points, 53 comments)
  23. 28 points, 2 submissions: Lenned
    1. 2 White House Officials Helped Give Nunes Intelligence Reports (18 points, 1 comment)
    2. Trump Gives Military New Freedom. But With That Comes Danger. (10 points, 4 comments)
  24. 24 points, 2 submissions: Strongbow85
    1. As Trump prepared for Riyadh visit, Saudis blocked U.S. on terrorist sanctions (12 points, 1 comment)
    2. White House defends Trump invitation to Duterte despite human rights criticism (12 points, 1 comment)
  25. 23 points, 1 submission: 62westwallabystreet
    1. [META] I've been here since it was trump_watch, here's why I'm fighting the urge to leave. (23 points, 36 comments)
  26. 23 points, 1 submission: staplehill
    1. Hotel in Hamburg cancels Trump's reservation for a room during G20 summit (23 points, 6 comments)
  27. 22 points, 2 submissions: akula51
    1. [email protected]'s decision is one of the biggest wins for our VETERANS in decades. Our HEROES deserve the best! ➡️… (RT - @realDonaldTrump) (15 points, 9 comments)
    2. Today, I announced an Air Traffic Control Initiative to take American air travel into the future - finally! ➡️… (RT - @realDonaldTrump) (7 points, 0 comments)
  28. 22 points, 1 submission: ed_merckx
    1. President Trump says suspect in Virginia shooting has died (22 points, 0 comments)
  29. 20 points, 1 submission: specter491
    1. Can we discuss the Paris Climate Treaty? How was it good/bad for Earth? How was it good/bad for the US? (20 points, 83 comments)
  30. 19 points, 1 submission: AwayWeGo112
    1. Trump grants amnesty to 125,000 illegals in 3 months (19 points, 15 comments)
  31. 18 points, 1 submission: Violent_Blue
    1. [Meta] This sub needs more liberals. (18 points, 48 comments)
  32. 17 points, 2 submissions: QuantumBitcoin
    1. How Donald Trump Shifted Kids-Cancer Charity Money Into His Business (9 points, 1 comment)
    2. Trump National Security Team Blindsided by NATO Speech (8 points, 5 comments)
  33. 15 points, 1 submission: ScottAdamsFan
    1. POLL: Who did you vote fosupport in the 2016 election? (15 points, 30 comments)
  34. 15 points, 1 submission: readonlypdf
    1. Discussion: What are your honest opinions and why, about how the Trump Administration is doing? (15 points, 127 comments)
  35. 13 points, 1 submission: ReticulateLemur
    1. Trump Blames Democrats as Major Push to Repeal Health Law Fails (13 points, 5 comments)
  36. 13 points, 1 submission: politicah
    1. Question for this who didn't vote for President Trump (13 points, 19 comments)
  37. 12 points, 1 submission: FactCheckOnTheFly
    1. Does POTUSWatch want more sincere, productive discussion? Simple. (12 points, 76 comments)
  38. 12 points, 1 submission: TipTipTopKek-NE
    1. US arrests nearly 200 Iraqis in deportation sweep [of the Detroit area] (12 points, 4 comments)
  39. 12 points, 1 submission: Ttussok
    1. Serious question: is Jeff Sessions actually a suspect in the Russia investigation? I think I missed the actual reason he was called to testify. (12 points, 57 comments)
  40. 12 points, 1 submission: deathlesgaming
    1. Trump Pushes for travel ban, asking for court to expedite case. (12 points, 24 comments)
  41. 10 points, 1 submission: enjoycapitalism
    1. SA, UAE, and Egypt sever their ties with Qatar for funding terrorism. The timing of this move makes it appear to be a result of President Trump's recent foreign trip. (10 points, 8 comments)
  42. 9 points, 1 submission: hjqusai
    1. Here's the link to the memo that the DOJ is claiming as guidance for Sessions' refusal to answer certain questions yesterday (9 points, 8 comments)
  43. 8 points, 2 submissions: redteamalphamale
    1. SecDef Mattis Q&A at Asia Security Summit (4 points, 0 comments)
    2. Tillerson, Mattis Attend Ministers Meeting in Australia (4 points, 0 comments)
  44. 8 points, 1 submission: Gnome_Sane
    1. Full text: James Comey testimony transcript on Trump and Russia (8 points, 1 comment)
  45. 8 points, 1 submission: Princesskittenlouise
    1. Nikki Haley says 'regime change' in Syria. Rex Tillerson doesn't. What gives? (8 points, 0 comments)
  46. 8 points, 1 submission: eddpastafarian
    1. President Trump’s Treasury Secretary Made a Plug for ‘Lego Batman.’ And Probably Broke Ethics Rules (8 points, 1 comment)
  47. 7 points, 1 submission: TutuForver
    1. President Trump's recent EO removes Obama-era EO protection for women workers (7 points, 1 comment)
  48. 7 points, 1 submission: minorgrey
    1. Trump under investigation for possible obstruction of justice: Washington Post (7 points, 26 comments)
  49. 6 points, 1 submission: Can-Abyss
    1. Who do you want as the next FBI director? Who do you think it will be? Why? (6 points, 12 comments)
  50. 6 points, 1 submission: ShingekiNoEren
    1. Why was there no /POTUSWatch when Obama was President? (6 points, 6 comments)
  51. 6 points, 1 submission: derrpy_derp
    1. Exclusive: Comey will stop short of saying Trump obstructed justice in Flynn probe, source says (6 points, 7 comments)
  52. 6 points, 1 submission: mattsummit
    1. A tip for this subreddit: put the article text into the post, or archive the articles (6 points, 2 comments)
  53. 5 points, 1 submission: Silentwidow
    1. White House: Trump won't stop Comey from testifying - Thoughts? (5 points, 17 comments)
  54. 5 points, 1 submission: UrbanGrid
    1. Congressional Democrats to file emoluments lawsuit against Trump (5 points, 50 comments)
  55. 5 points, 1 submission: pyramus3
    1. Can we ask questions? (5 points, 7 comments)
  56. 4 points, 1 submission: CanadianRebellion
    1. What Are Your Goal Posts For Determining the Success or Failure of Donald Trump's Presidency? (4 points, 3 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. Aevann (738 points, 358 comments)
  2. AnonymousMaleZero (454 points, 120 comments)
  3. vankorgan (323 points, 95 comments)
  4. Kaarous (296 points, 103 comments)
  5. LawnShipper (248 points, 61 comments)
  6. jhib456 (246 points, 77 comments)
  7. politicalaids (218 points, 83 comments)
  8. Hereforthefoodgifs (212 points, 68 comments)
  9. QuantumBitcoin (203 points, 60 comments)
  10. Spiel_Foss (200 points, 95 comments)
  11. CykoNuts (188 points, 79 comments)
  12. rstcp (176 points, 45 comments)
  13. LookAnOwl (174 points, 51 comments)
  14. -StupidFace- (161 points, 79 comments)
  15. tony27310 (160 points, 68 comments)
  16. Dragofireheart (147 points, 93 comments)
  17. Vaadwaur (144 points, 92 comments)
  18. iamseventwelve (144 points, 67 comments)
  19. mars_rovinator (142 points, 69 comments)
  20. SPOOFE (126 points, 32 comments)
  21. The_Primate (125 points, 33 comments)
  22. ckellingc (116 points, 21 comments)
  23. Sly_and_the_3rdStone (113 points, 15 comments)
  24. jigielnik (112 points, 35 comments)
  25. RocGoose (101 points, 21 comments)
  26. Malkron (100 points, 20 comments)
  27. SWEET_BBQ (98 points, 64 comments)
  28. CapitalismIsFascism (96 points, 34 comments)
  29. TheSausageFattener (92 points, 14 comments)
  30. DomSim (90 points, 34 comments)
  31. blakerboy777 (90 points, 27 comments)
  32. bizmarxie (87 points, 34 comments)
  33. cxr303 (87 points, 21 comments)
  34. ThreshingBee (87 points, 20 comments)
  35. PinochetIsMyHero (85 points, 33 comments)
  36. despotus (85 points, 15 comments)
  37. bradfordmaster (82 points, 25 comments)
  38. Darkroom2017 (81 points, 29 comments)
  39. InquisitiveSchizoid7 (80 points, 21 comments)
  40. immex5 (80 points, 14 comments)
  41. Hcfielden (80 points, 11 comments)
  42. get_real_quick (78 points, 32 comments)
  43. 62westwallabystreet (72 points, 34 comments)
  44. FanDiego (70 points, 27 comments)
  45. askheidi (70 points, 25 comments)
  46. chreestay (70 points, 23 comments)
  47. HogwartsNeedsWifi (70 points, 18 comments)
  48. generalmandrake (70 points, 12 comments)
  49. leostotch (70 points, 11 comments)
  50. ergzay (68 points, 28 comments)
  51. lAmShocked (68 points, 16 comments)
  52. DamonHarp (68 points, 5 comments)
  53. Bamelin (66 points, 24 comments)
  54. baeb66 (66 points, 10 comments)
  55. CanadianRebellion (64 points, 38 comments)
  56. FLSverker (64 points, 37 comments)
  57. sgtkibble (64 points, 12 comments)
  58. gjallard (64 points, 5 comments)
  59. Flabasaurus (63 points, 32 comments)
  60. bokono (63 points, 29 comments)
  61. grassshrimp (63 points, 18 comments)
  62. Altherionftw (63 points, 4 comments)
  63. aslanfan (62 points, 36 comments)
  64. AlienPsychic51 (62 points, 15 comments)
  65. happyxpenguin (62 points, 9 comments)
  66. _GameSHARK (61 points, 35 comments)
  67. me_gusta_poon (61 points, 11 comments)
  68. banjaxe (60 points, 26 comments)
  69. Byzantine279 (59 points, 34 comments)
  70. DamagedFreight (59 points, 17 comments)
  71. g35spaceship (59 points, 11 comments)
  72. Princesskittenlouise (59 points, 9 comments)
  73. Simple_Danny (59 points, 8 comments)
  74. KittehWantsToMAGA (58 points, 18 comments)
  75. tommysmuffins (58 points, 10 comments)
  76. suckmuckduck (57 points, 44 comments)
  77. inuvash255 (56 points, 17 comments)
  78. LittleKitty235 (56 points, 15 comments)
  79. FactCheckOnTheFly (55 points, 41 comments)
  80. neonwaterfall (55 points, 26 comments)
  81. sgt_soju (54 points, 26 comments)
  82. White_sama (54 points, 18 comments)
  83. avatarmicro (54 points, 9 comments)
  84. dangelo37 (53 points, 10 comments)
  85. sketchyiguana (53 points, 6 comments)
  86. me_too_999 (52 points, 27 comments)
  87. tudda (52 points, 22 comments)
  88. floodcontrol (52 points, 5 comments)
  89. legocrazy505 (51 points, 23 comments)
  90. ademnus (51 points, 15 comments)
  91. BananaTugger (51 points, 14 comments)
  92. 5yearsinthefuture (50 points, 17 comments)
  93. SwingJay1 (50 points, 8 comments)
  94. RandomDamage (49 points, 14 comments)
  95. thebabyseagull (49 points, 14 comments)
  96. potato_ballerina (49 points, 9 comments)
  97. jfalconic (49 points, 8 comments)
  98. O0O0RION (48 points, 31 comments)
  99. SobinTulll (48 points, 10 comments)
  100. Woxat (48 points, 5 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. President Trump on Twitter: "The Fake News Media has never been so wrong or so dirty. Purposely incorrect stories and phony sources to meet their agenda of hate. Sad!" by MyRSSbot (243 points, 472 comments)
  2. President Trump on Twitter: "As President I wanted to share with Russia (at an openly scheduled W.H. meeting) which I have the absolute right to do, facts pertaining...." by MyRSSbot (239 points, 109 comments)
  3. President Trump on Twitter: "You are witnessing the single greatest WITCH HUNT in American political history - led by some very bad and conflicted people! #MAGA" by MyRSSbot (220 points, 370 comments)
  4. Congressman calls for Donald Trump's impeachment on House floor by shish-mish (193 points, 35 comments)
  5. A searchable archive of all tweets from Donald. by jaybestnz (172 points, 25 comments)
  6. President Trump on Twitter: "Despite so many false statements and lies, total and complete vindication...and WOW, Comey is a leaker!" by MyRSSbot (166 points, 387 comments)
  7. President Donald Trump spoke out on the latest London terror attacks on Sunday night, vowing to do whatever was needed to protect his country from a "vile enemy." by MyRSSbot (163 points, 229 comments)
  8. The White House has agreed to preserve each of President Donald Trump's tweets, even deleted or amended ones, following the request of the National Archives and Records Administration, according to a Monday Associated Press report by Aevann (155 points, 15 comments)
  9. President Trump on Twitter: "Sorry folks, but if I would have relied on the Fake News of CNN, NBC, ABC, CBS, washpost or nytimes, I would have had ZERO chance winning WH" by MyRSSbot (147 points, 360 comments)
  10. President Trump on Twitter: "Do you notice we are not having a gun debate right now? That's because they used knives and a truck!" by MyRSSbot (133 points, 235 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 48 points: LawnShipper's comment in President Trump on Twitter: "Despite so many false statements and lies, total and complete vindication...and WOW, Comey is a leaker!"
  2. 44 points: Hcfielden's comment in President Trump on Twitter: "The Fake News Media has never been so wrong or so dirty. Purposely incorrect stories and phony sources to meet their agenda of hate. Sad!"
  3. 43 points: deleted's comment in President Trump on Twitter: "As President I wanted to share with Russia (at an openly scheduled W.H. meeting) which I have the absolute right to do, facts pertaining...."
  4. 36 points: ergzay's comment in President Trump Ends Obama Era Protections For Undocumented Parents (DAPA)
  5. 35 points: Patronicus's comment in President Trump on Twitter: "Do you notice we are not having a gun debate right now? That's because they used knives and a truck!"
  6. 35 points: gjallard's comment in President Trump on Twitter: "You are witnessing the single greatest WITCH HUNT in American political history - led by some very bad and conflicted people! #MAGA"
  7. 33 points: Altherionftw's comment in Welcome to POTUSWatch, please read the sidebar and read previous meta threads (using this link) to get a better idea about what this sub is supposed to be, thank you!
  8. 32 points: SwingJay1's comment in President Trump on Twitter: "James Comey better hope that there are no "tapes" of our conversations before he starts leaking to the press!"
  9. 32 points: ckellingc's comment in President Trump on Twitter: "I believe the James Comey leaks will be far more prevalent than anyone ever thought possible. Totally illegal? Very 'cowardly!'"
  10. 31 points: AmoebaMan's comment in President Trump on Twitter: "The Fake News Media has never been so wrong or so dirty. Purposely incorrect stories and phony sources to meet their agenda of hate. Sad!"
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats (Donate)
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UK: New cigarette packaging aims to burn out smoking - YouTube WATCH: Senate to vote on coronavirus relief bill - YouTube Simon Dixon discusses Bitcoin on BBC News - YouTube UK Mulls BTC Regulation  Bitcoin Traders Would No Longer ... What are the laws on CBD in the UK in 2020? - YouTube

A weakness in the Android mobile operating system leaves users of virtual currency Bitcoin vulnerable to theft, Bitcoin has said. Bitcoin Core, on the other hand, is unrelated to the original creator of Bitcoin, and Bitcoin was designed to have a stable protocol, one that did not change. Hence, the alterations of the Bitcoin protocol in 2017 within BTC and in 2018 within BCH, as they formed copies of the protocol based on the original Bitcoin database, presented breaches of the database rights of the creator of Bitcoin. With 2.8 million e-cigarette users now in the UK, there has been a significant amount of consideration about the legality of vaping in the workplace. Vaping might, after all, pose potential health risks to other non-vaping and non-smoking employees in the workplace. Smoking bans occurred in England on 1 st July 2007 as a result of the Health Act in 2006. However, vaping is not considered under ... UK increases sentence for market abuse in post-Brexit financial regulation plans . iPad Air 4 (2020) review ... review. Delay to new smoke alarm legislation for Scottish homes Judith Tonner. 10 ... 2020 may be the year we see the value proposition of infrastructure built in response to bitcoin, says Daniel Gorfine, founder of Gattaca Horizons and former CFTC chief innovation officer.

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UK: New cigarette packaging aims to burn out smoking - YouTube

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